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|Title: ||Daytime water detection based on sky reflections|
|Authors: ||Rankin, Arturo L.|
Matthies, Larry H.
|Keywords: ||water detection|
|Issue Date: ||9-May-2011 |
|Publisher: ||Pasadena, CA : Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2011.|
|Citation: ||IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China, May 9-14, 2011.|
|Abstract: ||Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water’s leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.|
|Appears in Collections:||JPL TRS 1992+|
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