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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2014/40364

Title: Annual cycles of multiyear sea ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean : 1999–2003
Authors: Kwok, R.
Keywords: Arctic Ocean
multiyear sea ice
ice
annual cycles
climate interannual variability
oceanography
Issue Date: 10-Nov-2004
Publisher: The American Geophysical Union
Citation: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, C11004, doi:10.1029/2003JC002238, 2004
Abstract: For the years 1999-2003, we estimate the time-varying perennial ice zone (PIZ) coverage and construct the annual cycles of multiyear (MY, including second year) ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean using QuikSCAT backscatter, MY fractions from RADARSAT, and the record of ice export from satellite passive microwave observations. An area balance approach extends the winter MY coverage from QuikSCAT to the remainder of the year. From these estimates, the coverage of MY ice at the beginning of each year is 3774 X 10³ km2 (2000), 3896 X 10³ km² (2001), 4475 X 10³ km2 (2002), and 4122 X 103 km2 (2003). Uncertainties in coverage are ~150 X 10³ km2. In the mean, on 1 January, MY ice covers ~60% of the Arctic Ocean. Ice export reduces this coverage to ~55% by 1 May. From the multiple annual cycles, the area of first-year (FY) ice that survives the intervening summers are 1192 X 103 km² (2000), 1509 X 103 km² (2001), and 582 X 10³ km² (2002). In order for the MY coverage to remain constant from year to year, these replenishment areas must balance the overall area export and melt during the summer. The effect of the record minimum in Arctic sea ice area during the summer of 2002 is seen in the lowest area of surviving FY ice of the three summers. In addition to the spatial coverage, the location of the PIZ is important. One consequence of the unusual location of the PIZ at the end of the summer of 2002 is the preconditioning for enhanced export of MY ice into the Barents and Kara seas. Differences between the minimums in summer sea ice coverage from our estimates and passive microwave observations are discussed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2014/40364
Appears in Collections:JPL TRS 1992+

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